|LEARNING MODELS AND LEARNING MANAGEMENT MODELs|
A. MODEL OF LEARNING
Learning is a term that has a very close relationship and can not be separated from each other in the educational process. Learning should be an activity undertaken to create an atmosphere or provide services for students to learn.
For that, it must be understood how students gain knowledge from their learning activities. If teachers can understand the process of acquiring knowledge, then the teacher will be able to determine the appropriate learning strategy for their students. According to Sudjana (2000) in Sugihartono, et al (2007: 80) learning is any effort made deliberately by educators who can cause learners to do learning activities. While Nasution (2005) in Sugihartono, et al (2007: 80) defines learning as an activity to organize or manage the environment as well as possible and connect it with students so that the learning process occurs. The environment in this sense is not only the study room, but also includes teachers, props, libraries, laboratories, etc. that are relevant to student learning activities.
Meanwhile, according to Dimyati and Mudjiono in Syaiful Sagala (2006: 62) learning is a programmed teacher activity in intruksional design, to make students learn actively, which emphasizes on the provision of 10 sources of learning. Learning as a learning process built by teachers to develop thinking creativity that can improve students’ thinking ability, and can improve the ability to construct new knowledge as an effort to improve good mastery of the subject matter.
Understanding Learning Model
Understanding Learning Model is a plan or a pattern used as a guide in planning learning in the classroom. The learning model refers to the learning approaches to be used, including the teaching objectives, the stages in the learning activities, the learning environment, and the management of the class (Arends in Trianto, 2010: 51). Meanwhile, according to Joyce & Weil (1971) in Mulyani Sumantri et al (1999: 42) the learning model is a conceptual framework that describes a systematic procedure in organizing learning experiences to achieve certain learning goals, and has a function as a guide for the designers of learning and teachers In planning and carrying out teaching and learning activities. Based on the above two opinions, it can be concluded that the learning model is a conceptual framework that describes systematic procedures in organizing learning experiences to achieve certain learning objectives and serves as a guide for learning designers and teachers in designing and implementing the teaching and learning process.
According to Trianto (2010: 53) the function of learning model is as a guide for teacher designers and teachers in implementing learning. To choose this model is strongly influenced by the nature of the material to be taught, and also influenced by the goals to be achieved in the teaching as well as the level of ability of learners. In addition, each learning model also has stages (syntax) that students can do with teacher guidance. Between syntax that one with another syntax also has a difference. These differences, among them the opening and closing of different learning between each other. Therefore, teachers need to master and be able to apply various teaching skills, in order to achieve the various learning objectives and learning environments that characterize schools today. According to Kardi and Nur in Trianto (2011: 142) the term learning model has a broader meaning than strategy, method, or procedure.
The learning model has four distinctive features not shared by strategy, method, or procedure. The specific characteristics of the learning model are:
1. The logical theoretical rationale prepared by the creators or developers. The learning model has a reasonable thinking theory. That is the creators or developers make the theory by considering the theory with the facts and not fictitious in creating and mengembangankannya.
2. The basis of thinking about what and how students learn (learning objectives to be achieved). The learning model has clear objectives on what to achieve, including what and how students learn well and how to solve a learning problem.
3. Teaching behavior required for the model to be successfully implemented. The learning model has the necessary teaching behavior so that what has been the goal of teaching so far can be successful in its implementation.
4. The learning environment necessary for the learning objectives to be achieved. Learning model has a conducive learning environment and comfortable, so that learning atmosphere can be one of the supporting aspects of what has been the goal of learning.
Finally, each learning model requires different management systems and learning environments. Each approach assigns different roles to the students, to the physical space, and to the classroom social system. The material nature of the nervous system many concepts and information from text books reading, student teaching materials, in addition to many observations of the images. Objectives to be achieved include cognitive aspects (products and processes) of reading comprehension activities and student activity sheets (Trianto, 2010: 55).
Some Learning Models
Here is an example of a Learning model
1. Examples Non Examples
A) The teacher prepares the drawings according to the learning objectives
B) The teacher attaches a picture on the board or aired through the OHP
C) The teacher gives instructions and gives the learner the opportunity to pay attention / analyze the picture
D) Through group discussions of 2-3 learners, the discussion results from the analysis of the drawings are recorded on the paper
E) Each group is given the opportunity to read out the results of the discussion
F) Starting from the comment / discussion results of learners, teachers begin to explain the material according to the goals to be achieved
2. Picture And Picture
A) The teacher conveys the competence to be achieved
B) Present the material as an introduction
C) Teacher shows / shows pictures of activities related to the material
D) Teachers appoint / invite students to alternately install / sort pictures into a logical sequence
E) The teacher asks the reason / rationale for the sequence of images
F) From the reason / sequence of images the teacher starts to name the concept / material in accordance with the competence to be achieved
G) Conclusion / summary
3. Numbered Heads Together
A) Learners are divided into groups, each learner in each group gets the number
B) The teacher gives the task and each group does it
C) The group discusses the correct answer and ensures each group member can work on it / find out the answer
D) The teacher calls one of the learner’s number with the number called to report the results of their cooperation
E) Feedback from another friend, then the teacher points to another number
4. Cooperative Script
A) Teachers divide learners to pair
B) Teachers share the discourses / materials of each learner to read and summarize
C) Teachers and learners determine who first plays the role of the speaker and who acts as the listener
D) The speaker reads the summary as completely as possible, incorporating the main ideas in his summary. While the listener:
E) Listening / correcting / showing underlying basic ideas
F) Helps remember / memorize key ideas by linking the previous material or with other material
G) Swap roles, originally as speakers converted into listeners and vice versa. And do as above.
H) Conclusion Learners together with Master
5. Numbered Head of Structure
A) Learners are divided into groups, each learner in each group gets a number
B) Assignment is given to each learner based on the number of assigned tasks. For example: the number one student in charge of taking notes. Students number two work on the masalah and learners number three report the results of work and so on.
C) If necessary, teachers may request cooperation between groups. Learners are told to get out of their group and join with some same numbered students from other groups. On this occasion learners with the same task can help each other or match the results of their cooperation
D) Report results and responses from other groups
6. Student Teams-Achievement Divisions
A) Establish groups whose members = 4 people heterogeneously (mix by achievement, gender, ethnicity, etc.)
B) The teacher presents lessons
C) Teachers assign tasks to groups to be undertaken by group members. Members who have understood can explain to other members until all members in the group understood.
D) Teacher gives quiz / question to all learners. When answering a quiz can not help each other
A) Learners are grouped into = 4 team members
B) Each person on the team is assigned a different piece of material
C) Each person on the team is assigned a part of the assigned material
D) Members of different teams who have studied the same section / sub-section meet in new groups (expert groups) to discuss their sub-chapters
E) After the discussion is completed as a team of experts each member returns to the original group and takes turns teaching their teammates about the sub-chapters they control and each other listens earnestly
F) Each team of experts presents the results of the discussion
G) Teacher gives evaluation
8. Problem Based Introduction
A) The teacher explains the competence to be achieved and mentions the means or supporting tools required. Motivate learners to engage in selected troubleshooting activities.
B) Teachers help learners define and organize learning tasks related to the masalah (set topics, tasks, schedules, etc.)
C) Teachers encourage learners to collect appropriate information, experimentation for explanations and masalah solving, data collection, hypotheses, masalah solving.
D) Teachers assist learners in planning to prepare appropriate works such as reports and help them share tasks with their friends
E) Teachers help learners to reflect on or evaluate their experiments and the processes they use
A) The teacher conveys the competence to be achieved
B) The teacher presents the material as usual
C) To know the absorption of learners, form groups in pairs of two people
D) Assign one of the learners of the couple to tell the new material received from the teacher and his partner hear while making small notes, then switch roles. So did the other groups
E) Assigning students in turns / randomly conveying the results of interviews with friends of their partners. Until some of the students have already delivered the interview result
F) The teacher repeats / explains the material that the students have not understood
G) Conclusion / cover
10. Mind Mapping
A) The teacher conveys the competence to be achieved
B) Teachers put forward the concepts / problems that will be responded by students and the problems that have alternative answers 3. Forming a group of members 2-3 people
C) Each group inventoried / recorded alternative answers to the results of the discussion
D) Each group (or randomized to a particular group) reads the results of the discussion and the teacher notes on the board and groups according to the teacher’s needs
E) From the data on the board learners are asked to make a conclusion or teacher to give a comparison according to the concept provided by the teacher
11. Make – A Match
A) The teacher prepares several cards that contain some concepts or topics suitable for the review sessions, on the contrary one part of the question card and the other part of the answer card
B) Each learner gets one card
C) Each learner thinks the answer / question of the card held
D) Any learner looking for a partner who has a card that matches his card (about the answer)
E) Any learner who can match the card before the deadline is given a point
F) After one round of cards shuffled again for each learner to get a different card than before
G) And so on
H) Conclusion / conclusion
12. Thik Pair And Share
A) The teacher conveys the essence of material and competence to be achieved
B) Learners are asked to think about the material / problems presented by the teacher
C) Students are asked to pair up with their next friend (group of 2 people) and express their own thoughts
D) The teacher leads a small plenary discussion, each group raising the results of the discussion
E) Starting from these activities, Master directs the discussion on the subject matter and adds material that the learners have not disclosed
F) The teacher concludes
A) Teachers divide the two groups of debate participants one pro and the other counter
B) The teacher gives the task to read the material that will be debated by both groups above
C) When finished reading the material, Teacher appoints one member of the pro group to speak at that time, then responded by the counter group. And so on until most of the learners can express opinions.
D) While the learner conveys his ideas, the teacher writes the essence / ideas of each conversation until getting some ideas is expected.
E) The teacher adds a concept / idea that has not been revealed
F) From the data disclosed, the teacher invites students to make conclusions / summaries that refers to the topic to be achieved.
14. Role Playing
A) The teacher prepares / prepares the scenarios to be displayed
B) Appoint some learners to study the scenario within a few days before the KBM
C) The teacher formed a group of learners whose members are 5 people
D) Provide an explanation of the competence to be achieved
E) Call the designated learners to play the prepared scenario
F) Each learner is in his / her group while observing the scenario being exhibited
G) After completion, each learner is given a worksheet to discuss the performance of each group.
H) Each group conveys its conclusions
I) The teacher gives general conclusions
15. Group Investigation
A) The teacher divides the class into several heterogeneous groups
B) Teacher explains the purpose of learning and group assignment
C) The teacher calls the group leader and each group gets the task of one material / task that is different from the other
D) Each group discusses the existing material in a cooperative manner that is discovery
E) After the discussion, a group spokesperson delivers the results of the group discussion
F) The teacher gives a brief explanation and concludes
16. Talking Stick
A) The teacher prepares a stick
B) The teacher delivers the subject matter to be learned, then provides the opportunity for the learners to read and study the material.
C) After you finish reading the material / textbook and learn it, students close the book.
D) The teacher takes the stick and gives the learner, after which the teacher asks questions and the learner holding the stick must answer it, and so on until the majority of the learners have a section to answer each teacher’s questions
E) The teacher gives a conclusion
17. Exchanging Couples
A) Each learner gets one pair (the teacher can appoint his / her spouse or the learner to choose his / her spouse).
B) Teachers provide tasks and learners to do the task with their partner.
C) After each pair finish joining one other pair.
D) Both couples exchange partners, then the new pair is asked each other and seek confirmation of their answers.
E) New findings obtained from the exchange of pairs then distributed to the original partner.
18. Snowball Throwing
A) The teacher presents the material to be presented
B) Teachers form groups and call each group leader to give an explanation of the material
C) Each group leader returns to his / her group, then explains the material presented by the teacher to his / her friends
D) Then each learner is given a single sheet of paper, to write down any questions concerning the material already described by the group leader
E) Then the paper containing the question is made like a ball and thrown from one learner to another student for ± 15 minutes
F) After learners can have one ball / one question given the opportunity to learners to answer questions written on the ball-shaped paper in turn
19. Student Facilitator And Explaining:
A) The teacher conveys the competence to be achieved
B) The teacher demonstrates / presents the material
C) Provide opportunities for learners to explain to other students for example through the concept chart / map.
D) The teacher concludes the ideas / opinions of the learners.
E) The teacher explains all the material presented at the time.
20. Course Review Horay
A) The teacher conveys the competence to be achieved
B) The teacher demonstrates / presents the material
C) Provide learners with question and answer opportunities
D) To test the understanding, learners are told to make 9/16/25 boxes according to need and each box is filled with numbers according to the taste of each learner
E) The teacher reads the questions randomly and learners write answers in the box whose numbers are mentioned by the teacher and immediately discussed, if correctly filled in the correct sign (√) and the salan is filled with a cross (x)
F) Learners who have got the mark √ vertical or horizontal, or diagonal must shout horay … or other yells
G) The value of the learner is calculated from the correct answer of the number of horics obtained
A) The teacher conveys the competence to be achieved
B) The teacher presents a glimpse of the material to be presented
C) Preparing materials or tools required
D) Appoint one of the learners to demonstrate according to the prepared scenario.
E) All learners pay attention to the demonstration and analyze it.
F) Each learner expresses the results of his analysis and also the learner’s experience is demonstrated.
G) The teacher makes the conclusion.
22. Explicit Instruction
A) Deliver goals and prepare learners
B) Demonstrate knowledge and skills
C) Guide training
D) Checking on understanding and providing feedback
E) Provide opportunities for follow-up exercises
24. Inside-Outside-Circle (Small Circle-Big Circle)
A) Half of the class standing in a small circle and facing out
B) The other half of the class forms a circle outside the first circle, facing inwards
C) Two students in pairs from small circles and large information sharing. This exchange of information can be done by all couples at the same time
D) Later learners are in a small circle stationary on the spot, while learners who are in large circles shift one or two steps clockwise.
E) Now it’s the turn of the learner to be in the big circle that shares the information. And so on
25. Guess the Word
A) Create a 10X10cm card and fill in other features or words that lead to the answer (term) on the card you want to guess.
B) Create a 5x2cm card to write predictable words or terms (this card will be folded and taped to the forehead or slipped in the ear
C) The teacher explains the competence to be achieved or material ± 45 minutes.
D) The teacher tells the students to stand in pairs in front of the class
E) A learner is given a card measuring 10×10 cm which will be read to his / her spouse. Another learner is given a 5×2 cm card whose contents can not be read (folded) and then placed on the forehead or tucked in the ears.
F) While learners carry a 10×10 cm card read out the words written on it while their partner guesses what is meant in a 10×10 cm card. The right answer when in accordance with the contents of the card affixed to the forehead or ear.
G) If the answer is correct (as written on the card) then the couple may sit. If not precise at the appointed time may lead with other words as long as do not directly give the answer.
H) And so on
26. Word Square
A) Make the box as needed * Create matter according to TPK
B) Teachers deliver material according to the competence to be achieved.
C) The teacher distributes activity sheets according to the sample
D) Learners answer questions then shaded the letters in the box according to the answer
E) Give points for each answer in the box
A) Questions that match the competence to be achieved
B) Make a randomized answer
C) The teacher presents the material according to the competence to be achieved
D) Sharing worksheets according to the example
28. Take And Give
A) Create a card size of ± 10×15 cm number of participants per card containing sub-material (different from other card, material according to TPK
B) Prepare the class as it should
C) Describe the material according to the competence to be achieved
D) To strengthen the participants’ mastery each learner is given each card to be learned (memorized) for approximately 5 minutes
E) All learners are told to stand and look for a partner to inform each other. Each learner should record his partner’s name on the sample card.
F) And so on until each participant can give each other and receive their respective materials (take and give).
G) To evaluate the success of giving learners questions that do not fit the card (someone else’s card).
H) This strategy can be modified according to circumstances
29. Concept Sentence
A) The teacher conveys the competence to be achieved
B) The teacher presents enough material
C) Teachers form groups whose members ± 4 people are heterogeneous
D) The teacher presents several keywords according to the material presented
E) Each group is told to make a few sentences using at least 4 keywords per sentence
30. Complete Sentence
A) Prepare blank fields in the form of paragraphs whose sentences are incomplete
B) The teacher conveys the competence to be achieved
C) Teachers deliver materials sufficiently or learners are told to read a book or module with enough time
D) Teachers form groups of 2 or 3 people heterogeneously
E) Teacher distributes worksheets in the form of paragraphs whose sentences are incomplete (see example).
F) Learners discuss to complete the sentence with answer key available.
G) Learners discuss in groups
H) After the answer is discussed, the wrong answer is fixed. Each participant reads to understand or memorize
31. Time Token Arends 1998
A) Conduct the class to carry out the discussion (cooperative learning / CL)
B) Each learner is given a talking coupon with a time ± 30 seconds. Each learner is assigned a number of values according to the time spent.
C) When you have finished talk the copies held by the students handed over. Every single coupon.
D) Students who have exhausted their coupons should not
32. Pair Check
A) Working in pairs, Teacher sets up a paired team of 2 (two) learners. Every couple Doing the right thing because it will help train
B) The coach checks. If the true partner coach gives the coupon
C) Swap roles. All partners exchange roles and reduce steps 1 – 3
D) Couple checks, All team pairs back together and compare answers
E) Teacher affirmation. Master directs answers / ideas according to concept
33. Circle the Group
A) One learner in each group judges by giving his or her views and thoughts about the task they are working on
B) The next learner also contributes
C) And so on turn can
34. Bamboo Dance
A) Half of a class or a quarter if the number of learners is too much standing in a row. If there is enough space they can lined up in front of the class. Another possibility is learner lined up on the sidelines of a row of stools. This second way will facilitate the formation of groups because it takes a relatively short time.
B) Half of the other classes are lined up and facing the first row
C) Two paired learners from both sides share the syndication.
D) Then one or two learners standing at the end of one of the ranks moved to the other end of the ranks. This line is then shifted. In this way each learner gets a new partner to share. Shifts can be done as needed
35. Two stay two guests (two stay two stray)
A) Learners work together in groups of 4 (four) people
B) Upon completion, two of each become guests of the other two groups
C) Two people who live in groups are assigned to share their work and information with their guests
D) Guests excuse themselves and return to their own groups and report their findings from other groups
E) Groups match and discuss the results of their work
B. MODEL OF LEARNING MANAGEMENT
1. Understanding Management of Learning
Improving the quality of education will be achieved if the learning process organized effectively and useful to achieve the expected competence. Because basically the process of teaching and learning is the core of the overall education process, and teachers are one important factor in determining the success of the learning process. Therefore, educators and principals are especially required to enhance their roles and competencies, in organizing or managing learning by creating an effective, efficient and enjoyable learning environment so that learners’ learning outcomes are at an optimal level.
In learning activities, an educator can play various role of learning manager as demonstrator, class manager, mediator and facilitator / mentor and as evaluator. As a professional, an educator is required to manage the class that is creating and maintaining optimal learning conditions for the achievement of teaching objectives.
Management of learning can be interpreted as an attempt to maintain classroom order, but understanding the management of this learning has experienced the development and interpreted the selection process and use the right tools to the problems and situations of learning management. Management of learning is an effort undertaken by the responsible teaching and learning activities with the intention to achieve optimal conditions so that the learning activities can be done as expected (Arikunto, 1986: 143).
The function of learning management is very basic because the activities of educators in managing learning include the activities of managing students’ behavior in the classroom, creating an emotional and emotional climate managing the process of group activities, so that the success of educators in creating conditions that enable the learning process to take place effectively.
According to various learning sources the goals of learning management are as follows:
1) Realizing classroom situation and condition, both as learning environment and as study group that enable learners to develop ability as much as possible.
2) Eliminating various obstacles that can hinder the realization of learning and teaching interaction.
3) Provide and organize facilities and learning furniture that support and enable learners to learn in accordance with the social, emotional, and intellectual environment of learners in the classroom.
4) Fostering and guiding in accordance with their social, economic, cultural and individual backgrounds.
5) Creating a social atmosphere that provides satisfaction, atmosphere of discipline, intellectual development, emotional, and attitude and appreciation in learners.
6) Facilitating every child in the classroom can work in an orderly manner so that the goal of teaching is achieved effectively and efficiently
2. Principles of Management of learning
In general, factors affecting the management of learning are divided into two groups, namely, internal factors and external factors of learners. The internal factors of the learner relate to emotions, thoughts, and behaviors. The personality of the learners with their own characteristics makes each student different from the other students individually. Individual differences are seen in terms of aspects of biological, intellectual, and psychological differences.
External factors of learners related to the atmosphere of learning environment, placement of learners, grouping of learners, the number of students, and so forth. The masalah of the number of learners in the class will color the class dynamics. The more number of learners in the class, for example twenty people upwards will tend to be easier to conflict. Conversely, the fewer the number of students in the classroom tend to be smaller conflict occurs.
In order to minimize the masalah of disruption in the management of learning can be used principles of learning management as follows.
Warm and Enthusiastic is needed in teaching and learning process. Warm and familiar educators in their students always show enthusiasm for their work or on their activities will succeed in implementing learning management.
The use of polite, wise, friendly, and courteous words, actions, work or materials will increase the learner’s passion for learning, thereby reducing the likelihood of the appearance of distorted behavior.
Varied. The use of tools or media, teaching style educators, patterns of interaction between educators and students will reduce the emergence of disorders, increasing the attention of learners. This variation is key to achieving effective learning management and avoiding burnout.
Flexibility. The flexibility of educators’ behavior to alter their teaching strategies can prevent the possibility of learning disorders and create an effective learning climate. Teaching flexibility can prevent the occurrence of disorders such as student clamor, no attention, no tasks and so on.
Emphasis on Positive Things Basically in teaching and educating, educators should emphasize positive things and avoid focusing on the negative. The emphasis on positive things is the emphasis that educators make on the positive behavior of learners rather than nagging negative behaviors. The emphasis can be made by providing positive reinforcement and educator awareness to avoid errors that can disrupt the process of teaching and learning.
Planting Self-Discipline. The ultimate goal of learning management is that students can develop self-dislipin and their own educators should be examples of self-control and execution of responsibilities. So, educators should be disciplined in everything if they want their students to be disciplined in everything.
3. Model Of Learning Management
There are various models of learning management or classroom management. The developed learning models are based on certain theoretical arguments. Between one model and another there are different approaches, strategies, methods, tactics and as, but keep in mind that all learning management models aim the same ie make the learning process run effectively and encourage the learning process. Some of the learning management models we often hear such as classical learning, individual learning, thematic learning, integrated learning, contextual learning, meaningful learning and so on.
The focus of attention that is used as the basis for the preparation and selection of learner models is very useful, for example on the basis of groups of learners so that it is known for classical learning and individual learning. The model of learning management is based more on the theme of learning so that in the theme learners can learn various teaching related subjects so that we know the thematic model of learning. Learning model that emphasizes the timing of the learning block system. There is also a model of learning that is based more on how the learners learn activities so that the model of learning PAKEM model with all the variations.
Various learning models that have been developed so far each have certain requirements so that the learning process that occurs effective, and each has advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, the choice of learning model that is used depends on the considerations and decisions of educators.
Educator as a learning manager is a person who has a strategic role that is people who plan activities that will be done in the classroom, people who will implement the planned activities with the subject and object learners, people determine and take decisions with strategies to be used with various Activities in the classroom, and educators will also determine alternative solutions to overcome obstacles and challenges that arise; Then with the three approaches proposed, will greatly assist educators in carrying out their job duties.
Educators in doing teaching tasks in a class, need to plan and determine what learning management needs to be done with regard to the condition of learning ability of learners as well as subject matter that will be taught in the classroom, available infrastructure, and social culture of learners. Develop strategies to anticipate if obstacles and challenges arise so that the teaching and learning process can still run and the objectives of learning that have been determined can be achieved.
Management of learning will be simple to do if the educator has high work motivation, and the educator knows that situational leadership style will be very beneficial for the educator in doing the teaching task. Thus the management of learning can not be separated from the motivation of educator work, because with the motivation of this educator work will be seen how far the motivator and motivation of educators to perform the management of learning, while with the appropriate leadership style of educator used in learning management will optimize and maximize the success of learning management .
Learning management is the process of managing and controlling the classroom environment. To ensure that between educators and learners can interact effectively and productively, without interruption or disruptive behavior, they use certain techniques. Learning management indicators are used to measure teachers’ success in managing their learning and activities.
One indicator of successful instructional management is ensuring that learners are active and busy, even when educators are busy or trapped in other tasks or activities. For example, from time to time, educators may need to consult with other educators or administrators about class matters, or they may have to help learners individually with issues or issues. When this happens, the remaining classes for the device itself, if not managed properly, this can cause problems for educators or other learners. Providing classes with courses or assignments during this period is an indicator of classroom management success. The stored classes are occupied even when the teacher’s full attention is not available is an indicator that the classroom teacher has succeeded successfully.
Another indicator of learning management is the ability to prepare a backup learning plan. At the time the prepared lesson plan did not work. When this happens, the ability of educators to provide learners with a backup lesson plan and activity is an indicator of the quality of learning management, as it reinforces the learner’s notion that the classroom is a learning environment. If learners are left without a clear focus on the tasks and instructions they have prepared, they are not interested and will likely abandon learning activities.
Model of Classical Learning Management
Classical teaching is the usual model of learning management we see everyday. The term classical can be interpreted as a classic that states that conditions that have long occurred, can also be interpreted as a class. So classical learning means conventional learning is commonly done in the class so far, ie learning that views learners are not different or the same so that they get the lessons together, the same way in one class at a time. Classical learning does not mean bad, depending on the process of the activities undertaken, ie whether all learners participate actively involved in learning, or passively uninvolved, or simply hear and record whether learning effectively achieves the learning objectives, whether learning is fun for educators and learners .
In this learning management model, educators teach a number of learners, usually between 30-40 learners in a classroom. Under these conditions, the learning conditions of individual learners both concerning the future learning, learning difficulties and interest in learning less attention by educators. In general, the way of educators in determining the speed of presenting learning materials and the level of difficulty of learning materials bergantun on information ability of learners in general. The site educator is very dominant in determining all learning activities. The number of materials to be taught, the sequence of subject matter, the speed of teaching educators and others is entirely in the hands of educators.
Conventional classical learning models usually require high discipline of learners, and educators have full authority in the classroom. Classical learning tends to be used by educators if in the learning process more forms of material presentation from educators. Presentation is more emphasis to explain something material that is not yet known or understood learners. The methods used tend to lecture and question and answer methods vary.
Classical learning will make it easier for educators to organize the subject matter, because in classical lessons the lesson material will generally be uniformly absorbed by the learners. Classical learning can be used if the subject matter is more informative or factual. The process of classical learning can shape the ability of learners in listening or listening, shaping the ability to listen and the ability to ask questions.
The implementation of school education in this country is more likely to be classical, the form of classical teaching succeeds in putting the educator as the dominant factor and becomes very important / important for learners because educators often become self-identification figures. Therefore, it is very wise if an educator has the ing ing behavior ngarso sung tulodo, ing madya mangun karsa and tut wuri handayani and has enough talent to develop the potential learners intact. Educators are required to be able to work regularly, consistently, and creatively in dealing with problems related to their duties, especially the ability to implement teaching and learning kegiatan that is the ability to create teaching and learning interaction in accordance with predetermined situations and conditions and programs. An education in the classical learning has weaknesses, such as learning does not pay attention to the experience of learners, learners become passive recipients, as well as abstract and theoretical learning. Classical learning can be minimized if supported by relevant and contextual lesson textbooks as well as the use of learning resources that meet the needs of learners and are easily accessible to learners.
Individual Learning Management Model
Individual learning is a learning activity that accommodates individual differences in the organizing of learning that emphasizes the assistance and guidance of learning to individual classes in particular.
In general, differences in individual and classical learning are:
1) Attention and motivation, attention has a role in learning activities.
2) Activity according to child psychology is an active being
3) Direct involvement / learning experience must be done alone by learners, learning is experiencing themselves and can not be delegated to others.
4) Individual differences in learners are unique individual creatures in which each has a distinct distinction.
Understanding individual learning or Individual Instruction is a strategy to organize teaching and learning activities in such a way that each learner receives more attention than can be provided in the context of managing teaching and learning activities within a large group of learners.
Individual learning is a way of arranging learning programs in each subject, arranged in a certain way provided for each learner in order to spur the pace of learning under the guidance of the teacher.
Individual learning is a learner’s teaching activity that emphasizes the help and guidance of learning to each individual. Student assistance and guidance are also found in classical learning, but the principles are different. In individual learning, the learner gives assistance to each individual. Prominent features in individual learning can be viewed in terms of: learning objectives, learners as learning subjects, educators as facilitators, learning programs, orientation and the main emphasis in the implementation of learning.
Individual Learning Objectives that stand out is the provision of opportunities and flexibility of learners to learn based on their own ability. The development of individual abilities optimally, each individual has their own individual learning package, which suits their individual learning goals as well. Position Learners in Individual learning: Position learners are central Learning flexibility based on their own ability Freedom to use study time. Discretion in controlling activities etc.
Thematic Learning Management Model
The management of thematic learning emphasizes the theme as the basis for designing learning activities. Based on a particular theme learners can follow the activities of classical or individual learning. Thematic learning in general is often used in the learning of learners who are in the early grades of primary school are in the early age range. Learners who are in primary school grade one, two, and three are in the range of early age. At that age all aspects of the development of intelligence grow and develop very extraordinary. In general they still see everything as a whole (think holistic) and understand the relationship between concepts in a simple way. The learning process is still dependent on concrete objects and experiences experienced directly. These conditions form the basis for the development of appropriate learning patterns and strategies, not only for learning objectives to be achieved, but also for the purpose of the educational kegiatan to be fulfilled, namely to lay the foundation of intelligence, knowledge, personality, noble character, and skills to Live independently and follow further education. Thematic learning that involves a variety of subjects to provide meaningful experiences to learners is an innovative model of learning that can be a solution to the separate learning that has been used in early grades of elementary school.
One of the important dimensions of thematic learning is the learning strategy. Establishing appropriate and optimal learning strategies will encourage initiative and facilitate learners’ learning. The starting point of this effort is put on process improvement. Therefore, careful investigation of thematic learning strategies becomes important and urgent amid the confusion many schools find the whole shape of thematic learning strategies, especially through empirical studies.
Currently, the implementation of learning activities, especially in elementary classes I – III for each subject is done separately, for example IPA 2 hours lesson, IPS 2 hours lesson, and Bahasa Indonesia 2 hours lesson. In the execution of its activities carried out purely subjects that is only studying material related to the subject. In accordance with the stage of development of children who still see everything as a whole (holistic thinking), learning that presents the subjects separately will lead to less developing children for holistic thinking and making it difficult for learners
In accordance with the characteristic stages of child development, the characteristics of how children learn, the concept of learning and meaningful learning, then the learning activities for elementary school students should be done with thematic learning. Thematic renewal is a blended lesson that uses themes to link some subjects so as to provide meaningful learning experiences to learners.
Theme thematic characteristics include:
B) Provide direct experience to the child
C) The separation between subject areas / subjects is not clear
D) Present the concept of various subject areas / subjects in a learning process
E) is flexible
F) Learning outcomes can develop in accordance with the interests and needs of children
G) Using thematic learning is expected to provide many advantages, including:
H) Learners easily focus on a particular theme;
I) Learners are able to learn knowledge and develop various basic competencies between subjects in the same theme;
J) Understanding of subject matter more deeply and memorable;
K) Basic competencies can be better developed by linking other subjects with the learners’ personal experiences;
L) Learners are able to better experience the benefits and meaning of learning because the material is presented in the context of a clear theme;
M) Learners are more passionate about learning because they can communicate in real situations, to develop a capability in one subject while learning other lessons;
N) Teachers can save time because some subjects presented thematically can be prepared at once and given in two or three meetings, the remaining time can be used for remedial, stabilization, or enrichment activities.
In the implementation of thematic learning, it is necessary to do some things that include planning phases that include basic competence mapping activities, theme network development, syllabus development and preparation of learning implementation plan.
Basic Competence Mapping. This mapping exercise is conducted to obtain a comprehensive and complete picture of all competency standards, basic competencies and indicators of the various subjects combined in the selected theme. Activities undertaken in competency mapping include performing the elaboration of competency standards and basic competencies from each subject into indicators appropriate to the characteristics of learners, in accordance with the characteristics of the subjects, measurable and / or observable
In determining the theme that will be used in thematic learning can be done with the first first, study the competence standards and basic competencies contained in each subject, followed by determining the appropriate theme. Or secondly, establishing the first theme of binding of cohesiveness, in order to determine the theme, the teacher can cooperate with the learner so as to match the interests and needs of the child.
In setting the theme it is necessary to pay attention to the environment closest to the learner, the degree of difficulty of the subject matter and preferably sorted from the easiest to the difficult, from the simple to the complex, from the concrete to the abstract. The chosen theme should allow the process of thinking In the learners themselves and the scope of the theme adapted to the age and development of learners, including their interests, needs, and abilities.
Setting theme network. Once the theme is found then proceed with the creation of the theme network. The theme network is linking basic competencies and indicators with a unifying theme. With the theme network will show a link between the theme, basic competence and indicators of each subject. This theme network can be developed according to the time allocation of each theme
Thematic learning has its advantages: fun because it departs from the interests and needs of learners; Provide experience and teaching-learning activities relevant to the level of development and needs of learners; Learning outcomes can last long because they are more memorable and meaningful; Develop the thinking skills of the participants in accordance with the problems faced; Fostering social skills through cooperation; Have an attitude of tolerance, communication and responsiveness to the ideas of others; M Present activities that are real in accordance with the problems faced in the environment of learners. In addition, thematic learning also has several weaknesses. The weakness of thematic learning occurs when done by a single teacher. For example, a class teacher lacks an in-depth understanding of the theme so that in thematic learning it will be difficult to associate the theme with the subject matter of each subject. In addition, if the learning scenario does not use innovative methods then the achievement of Competency standards and basic competencies will not be achieved because it will be a dry, meaningless narrative.
Selection of Learning Management Model
Each learning-learning model has certain requirements to be implemented successfully to assist learners in achieving learning goals or mastering the competencies being taught. The age of learners becomes one of the basic considerations in the selection of learning management models. Young learners, especially those in first grade, two, and three primary schools are in the early age range. At that age all aspects of the development of intelligence grow and develop very extraordinary. In general the level of development still sees everything as a whole (holistic) and able to understand the relationship between concepts in a simple way. The learning process is still dependent on concrete objects and experiences experienced directly.
Each child has its own way of interpreting and adapting to its environment (cognitive developmental theory). According to him, every child has a cognitive structure called schemata that is a concept system that exists in the mind as a result of understanding of the objects that exist in the environment. An understanding of the object. Primary school-aged children are in concrete, integrative and hierarchical stages of operation. Concrete implies the process of learning moving from concrete things that can be seen, heard, smelled, touched, and tinkered with, with emphasis on the use of the environment as a source of learning. Integrative, at the elementary school age children see something studied as a whole, they have not been able to sort out the concepts of various disciplines, this illustrates the deductive way of thinking of the child from general to part by part. Hierarchical, at the elementary school age stage, the way children learn gradually develops from simple things to more complex things. In connection with this, it should be noted about the logical sequence, the interrelationship between the material, and the scope of breadth and depth of material